3.8 Summary

1. Through socialisation, social experience makes us fully human and enables each generation to transmit culture to the next.
2. Socialisation is a life-long process and it is classified into various forms such as: primary, secondary, anticipatory and resocialisation.
3. The different agents of socialisation are: the family, the school, the peer group and the mass media.
4. Long ago, people thought human behaviour was grounded in biological instinct. Today, however, we recognise that human behaviour is mostly a result of nurture rather than nature.
5. According to Mead, social experience nurtures the self, which he characterises as partly autonomous (the I) and partly guided by society (the ME).
6. Cooley used the term looking-glass self to underscore that the self is influenced by how we think others respond to us.
7. Society gives a social construction of maleness and femaleness or masculinity and feminity throughsshe socialisation process.
8. Society is made up of a number of statuses.
9. Specific expectations are attached to each status and each status requires a number of specific responses.
10. Through the status one holds an identity is conferred.
11. Through role playing, an individual can confirm or modify his/her identity.
12. The concept of role refers to the behaviour and attitudes expected of someone who holds a particular status. Through role playing, the individual can sustain or transform the identity which his/her status provides him/her.
13. Achieved status depends on one's achievement in society while ascribed status is given by birth. The master status is of special significance as it often shapes a person's entire life.
14. According to Thomas, situations we define as real are real in their consequences.
15. Berger and Luckman describe the importance of a universe of meanings. Though derived from society, this universe of meanings in turn makes social life possible.
16. Developed by Erving Goffman, the dramaturgical analysis examines the various elements engaged in the process of impression management.
17. Garfinkel coined the term ethnomethodology. He has analysed the rules we use in everyday life to uncover the taken-for-granted assumptions made by individuals in their social interaction.
18. Cultural values are important and should be considered in the analysis of everyday life interaction.